Ingredients: Paper and Compass.
Description: A map is an item used to view explored terrain.
Crafting a map creates an empty map. The map will be drawn for the first time when it is held and used (with use item). This map can then be adjusted to different zoom levels. After conversion to a drawn map item, it starts to draw a top-down view of the player’s surroundings, with North pointing to the top of the map. An oval pointer indicates the player’s position on the map, and will move in real time as the player moves across the terrain shown on the map. The map will be centered on specific locations rather than where the map was created, meaning that maps will touch but not overlap.
To record the world on a map, that specific map item must be held in the player’s hands while the player moves around the world. The world will be recorded as-is during exploration, meaning that if the world is modified, a player must revisit the area while holding the map in order to update the map’s view. Maps can also be cloned. A map’s parameters are fixed when the map is first used, meaning the map does not remain centered on the player—the drawing snaps to a pre-set grid.
More detail at https://minecraft.gamepedia.com/Map